Communities

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The Jewish Community of Austria

Demography:

Fifteen thousand Jews live in Austria today, with Vienna the home of the great majority. There are also several smaller communities, none with more than 100 Jews, including Baden, Graz, Innsbruck, Linz, and Salzburg.

History

Jewish life in Austria dates back to the times of the Roman Empire, originating with the exodus of clusters of Jews from Roman-occupied Israel and peaking in the early 1930’s, when Jews comprised 10% of Vienna’s total population.

Contact

Jewish Community of Vienna
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien
PRESIDENT: Oskar DEUTSCH

 

The Jewish Community of Belarus

Demography:

In 1897 there were around 720,000 Jews in Belarus, i.e. Jews comprised 13.6% of the total population.

History

The history of the Belarusian Jews is connected tightly with the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland as for many centuries lands of modern Belarus formed part of these two countries.

Contact

Union of Belarussian Jewish Organizations and Communities
PRESIDENT: Boris I. GERSTEN

 

The Jewish Community of Belgium

Demography:

At the outset of World War II, more than 80.000 Jews were living in the kingdom. Some fled to safer countries but, during the horror years, 24.908 were assembled in the transit camp of Kazerne Dossin in Mechelen.

History

The first tangible proof of a Jewish presence in what is now Belgium goes back to the 13th century. A tombstone from 1255/56 found in Tienen bears a Hebrew text mentioning Rebecca bat Moshe.

Contact

The Organization of the Jews in Bulgaria "Shalom"
PRESIDENT: Dr. Alexander OSCAR, MD, PhD

 

The Jewish Community of Bosnia

Demography:

Before the Yugoslav Civil War, there were about 2,000 Jews in Bosnia-Herzegovina. With the demise of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, many Jews were forced to leave war-torn and Muslim Bosnia.

History

The Ottoman Empire welcomed the Jews who fled the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. Many Jews settled at the time in the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Contact

Jewish Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina
La Benevolencija
PRESIDENT: Jakob FINCI

 

The Jewish Community of Bulgaria

Demography:

Nearly all the Jews are Sephardim and live in Sofia. As a result of emigration and assimilation, the elderly account for a disproportionately large share of the population.

History

Archeological findings indicate the presence of Jews as far back as the Roman period. Until the arrival of Jewish refugees from Spain at the end of the 15th century.

Contact

Organization of Jews in Bulgaria – Shalom
PRESIDENT: Maxim Benvenisti

 

The Jewish Community of Croatia

Demography:

After World War II, only 2,500 Jews lived in Zagreb. Many of them immigrated to Israel right after Israel’s independence.

History

Jewish communities were already present in the Balkans when the Croats established a kingdom there in the 10th century CE. Jews lived in Zagreb in the 14th century but were expelled from Croatia in 1456.

Contact

Co-ordinating Committee of the Jewish Communities
PRESIDENT: Ognjen KRAUS

 

The Jewish Community of Cyprus

Demography:

In the 16th century, 2,000 Jews are said to have lived in Famagusta. During the Ottoman rule (1571-1878), the Jewish community of Cyprus thrived due .

History

In 142 BCE, Cyprus was one of the countries that safeguarded Jewish rights at the request of the Romans. Cypriot Jews seem to have participated in a rebellion, in 177 CE, against the Mare Nostrum

Contact

The Jewish Community of Cyprus
PRESIDENT: Ami YESHURUN

 

The Jewish Community of Czech Republic

Demography:

Apart from Prague, in which the great majority of Jews has always been living, there are nine other Jewish Communities in the territory of the Czech Republic today, notably in Brno, Decin, Karlovy Vary, Liberec.

History

Jews have been settling down on the territory of Bohemia and Moravia most probably since this region in the heart of Europe has seen the marches of Roman legions which were accompanied by Jewish merchants, securing their supplies.

Contact

Federation of Jewish Communities in the Czech Republic
PRESIDENT: Petr PAPOUSEK

 

The Jewish Community of Denmark

Demography:

There are an estimated 8,000 Jews in Denmark today, most of who live in Copenhagen and the immediate surroundings. The great majority of Danish Jews are Ashkenazim with roots in central and Eastern Europe.

History

There has been a Jewish presence in Denmark for more than 400 years. Denmark was the first of the three Scandinavian countries in which Jews were permitted to settle.

Contact

The Jewish Community in Denmark

PRESIDENT: Dan ROSENBERG ASMUSSEN

 

The Jewish Community of Estonia

Demography:

Today approximately 2,500 Jews live in Estonia, most of them in Tallinn. Outside of the capital small communities exist in Kohtla-Jarv, Parnu, Tartu and Narva.

History

The first Jews arrived in what is now Estonia as early as in the year 1333. In the seventeenth century, the number of Jews in the region increased, proven by the fact that the authorities introduced an oath of loyalty especially for the Jews.

Contact

Jewish Community of Estonia
Eesti Juudi Kogukond
Chairman: Alla JAKOBSON

 

The Jewish Community of Finland

Demography:

There are 1200 Jews in Helsinki, the capital, and another 200 in Turku.

History

The first Jews to settle in the country were Russian Army conscripts - the so-called Cantonists who served in Russian-ruled Finland and who were permitted to remain there upon completion of their military service.

Contact

Central Council of Jewish Communities in Finland
Suomen Juutalaisten Seurakuntien Keskusneuvosto
PRESIDENT: Yaron NADBORNIK

 

The Jewish Community of France

Demography:

Between 1945 and 1948, about 80,000 Jews immigrated to France from central and eastern Europe. This immigration brought the Jewish population of France back to its pre-war figure. In the 1950s and 1960s.

History

Jewish presence in France is thought to go back to the year 6 CE, when Roman Emperor Augustus banished Archelaus, the ethnarch of Judea. In the seventh century, the number of Jews in France increased significantly.

Contact

Representative Council of Jewish Institutions in France
PRESIDENT: Francis KALIFAT

 

The Jewish Community of Germany

Demography:

With the rise of the Nazi party to power in 1933, the more than 500,000 Jews living in Germany found themselves severely persecuted and rapidly excluded from the German society of which they had felt so much a part.

History

The presence of Jews in Germany dates back to the early 4th century. Little is known about the early German Jews, but by the 8th century, during the reign of Charlemagne (Charles the Great), 'King of the Franks,'.

Contact

Central Council of Jews in Germany
PRESIDENT: Dr. Josef SCHUSTER

 

The Jewish Community of Gibraltar

Demography:

As at 2011, there were 750 Jews in Gibraltar (roughly 2% of the total population) the vast majority of which are Sephardic.

History

There has been a Jewish presence in Gibraltar for more than 650 years. After the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, Gibraltar was made a British dependency.

Contact

Jewish Community of Gibraltar
PRESIDENT: Chaim J M LEVY

 

The Jewish Community of Greece

Demography:

Nowadays approximately 5,000 Jews live in Greece. The current centers of Greek Jewry are Athens (3,000) en Thessalonica (1,000) and a handful of smaller towns, amongst them Ionanina.

History

Jews played an important role in Greek history, from the Hellenistic period and the early history of Christianity, through the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Greece, until the tragic near-destruction of the community after.

Contact

Central Board of Jewish Communities in Greece
PRESIDENT: Moses CONSTANTINIS

 

The Jewish Community of Hungary

Demography:

It is estimated that between 80,000-100,000 thousand Jews - the largest number in East-Central Europe - live in Hungary today who are considered as Jews according to 'halacha' (Jewish religious law).

History

Jews have lived in Hungary since the time of the Roman Empire. A large number of Jews arrived from Asia together with the Hungarian tribes in the 9th century.

Contact

Federation of Jewish Communities in Hungary
PRESIDENT: Andras HEISLER

 

The Jewish Community of Ireland

Demography:

The official Irish Jewish community represented by the Jewish Representative Council of Ireland numbers approximately 750.

History

The earliest reference to the Jews in Ireland was in the year 1079. Jews were never expelled from the Gaelic-controlled areas, but their numbers remained small.

Contact

Jewish Representative Council of Ireland
CHAIRMAN: Maurice COHEN

 

The Jewish Community of Italy

Demography:

There are approximately 28,400 Jews in Italy today. They are concentrated in Rome (13,000) and Milan (8,000), with smaller communities situated in Turin (900), Florence (1,000), Venice (600) and Leghorn (Livorno, 600).

History

The Jews of Italy have strong bi-cultural roots dating back to the second century BCE, when many Israelites, under the leadership of Judah Maccabeus, left the land of Israel to go the "Eternal City" (Rome).

Contact

Union of Italian Jewish Communities
Unione delle Comunità Ebraiche Italiane
PRESIDENT: Renzo Gattegna

 

The Jewish Community of Latvia

Demography:

The Jewish population of Latvia, numbering around 10 thousand people, is the biggest in the Baltic states. The capital city Riga is the most important center of Jewish life, there are also smaller communities in Daugavpils.

History

The Jewish presence in Latvia dates back to second half of 16th century, when the first Jews settled in Western Latvian region of Courland. The settlers came from Germany, and were rather educated and wealthy.

Contact

Council of Jewish Communities of Latvia
Chairman: Arkady SUHARENKO

 

The Jewish Community of Lithuania

Demography:

On the eve of World War II, Vilna’s Jewish population exceeded 60,000. Lithuania was home to some 250 Jewish communities sustaining the lives and livelihoods of approximately a quarter of a million Jews.

History

Jews trace their origins in parts of the Lithuanian territories almost a thousand years. The definitive historical record, however, dates from the fourteenth century, when Lithuanian Grand Dukes issued invitations and charters.

Contact

Jewish Community of Lithuania
Chairman:  Faina KUKLIANSKY

 

The Jewish Community of Luxembourg

Demography:

Today, there are roughly 1,200 Jews in Luxembourg and Jews form one of the largest and most important ethnic minorities in the grand duchy.

History

The first record of Jews living in the city of Luxembourg, the capital of the country, dates back to 1276. They were followed by small numbers of Jewish immigrants from the adjacent area.

Contact

Jewish Community of Luxembourg
Consistoire Israélite de Luxembourg
PRESIDENT: Claude MARX

 

The Jewish Community of Macedonia

Demography:

The Jewish Community of the Republic of Macedonia is one of the five religious communities included in the Constitution of the Republic.

History

The history of the Jews in the Republic of Macedonia dates back to the fourth century BCE. The settling of Jewish people took place after Alexander the Great’s conquest of Asia Minor in 330 BCE. There is evidence of Jewish settlements at all ages

Contact

Jewish Community in the Republic of Macedonia
PRESIDENT: Berta ROMANO-NIKOLIKJ

 

The Jewish Community of Malta

Demography:

Approximately 1.000 Jews live in Malta today with the majority located in two major centres: La Valetta (some 700 persons) and Gozo (approximately 300).

History

The history of the Jews of Malta goes back at least to the 4th and 5th centuries as Greek inscriptions and menorah decorated tombs indicate that Jews and early Christians lived on Malta during that time.

Contact

The Jewish Foundation of Malta
PRESIDENT: Abraham Ohayon

 

The Jewish Community of Moldova

Demography:

There are approximately 20,000 Jews in the Republic of Moldova today. The largest community is in the capital city Kishinev, with nearly 13,000.

History

Jews have lived in Bessarabia - the territory that constitutes the bulk of present-day Moldova-since the 15th and 16th centuries.

Contact

The Jewish Community of the Republic of Moldova
CHAIRMAN: Aleksandr BILINKIS

 

The Jewish Community of Monaco

Demography:

It is estimated that almost 1,000 Jews live today in Monaco, but most of them are not citizens of the country.

History

Prior to World War II, a small number of Jews, mostly originating from France, lived in Monaco, numbering approximately 300 people.

Contact

Jewish Cultural Association of Monaco
Association Culturelle Israélite de Monaco
PRESIDENT: Mikhal AMSELLEM

 

The Jewish Community of Montenegro

Demography:

After the Second World War only a very small number of Jews remained in Montenegro.

History

The first traces of Jewish presence in Montenegro date from ancient Duklja, whose ruins are located close to the centre of Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro.

Contact

Jewish community in Montenegro
President: Jasha ALFANDRI

 

The Jewish Community of Morocco

Demography:

The Jews living today in Morocco represent but a small fraction of an ancient important and rooted community. In 1956 they numbered more than a quarter of a million.

History

Throughout History, since more than 2000 years and until today, Jews have been living in Morocco.

Contact

Council of Moroccan Jewish Communities
PRESIDENT: Serge BERDUGO

 

The Jewish Community of Norway

Demography:

Today around 1400 Jews make their home in Norway. Some 870 of these belong to one or other of the country’s two Jewish communities, respectively in Oslo and Trondheim.

History

The first Jews came to Norway after the 1492 expulsion from Spain, only to be expelled from the country in 1687 and forbidden to return. This prohibition was enshrined in the first National Constitution, adopted in 1814.

Contact

The Jewish Community of Oslo
Det mosaiske trossamfund i Oslo
President: Ervin KOHN

 

The Jewish Community of Poland

Demography:

Nowadays, Warsaw is home to the great majority of Polish Jews, but there are also communities in Krakow, Lodz, Szczecin, Gdansk, and in several cities in Upper and Lower Silesia, notably in Katowice.

History

Jewish life in Poland dates back over a millennium. The 'Jewish story' in Poland is defined by the community's fluctuating political status over the ages, with epochs of equality and prosperity.

Contact

Union of Jewish Communities in Poland
PRESIDENT: Leslaw Piszewski

 

The Jewish Community of Portugal

Demography:

Today’s community has Sephardi and Ashkenazi members made up of post-war migrants from Germany, Poland, Eastern Europe and South America (mainly Brazil).

Estimates of the amount of Jews in Portugal today vary largely: The Portuguese census estimates a Jewish population of 5,000 as of 2001, with a between-census estimate (2006) of 8,000, while the CIA's World Fact Book refers to a smaller number of 1,000 Jews, mainly central Eastern Holocaust survivors. However, the marranos (crypto-Jews) and returned Sephardim represent the remainder.

History

Although Jews exiled from Spain were allowed to enter Portugal in 1492, Portugal issued an expulsion edict of its own four years later.

Contact

Jewish Community of Lisbon
Comunidade Israelita de Lisboa - CIL
PRESIDENT: José Oulman Carp

 

The Jewish Community of Romania

Demography:

According to official community membership, some 12,000 Jews live in Romania today, but the country's census in 2002 showed a total of 6,200 persons wishing to identify as Jewish.

History

The Jews may have arrived in Romania as merchants or in other capacities with the Roman legions that garrisoned the country from 101 C.E. Another wave of Jewish immigrants settled in Walachia

Contact

Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania
PRESIDENT: Mr. Aurel Vainer

 

The Jewish Community of Russia

Demography:

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the rise of numerous successor states, "Russian Jewry" no longer includes many of the communities that were once implied within it.

History

Jews were denied the right of permanent residence in Muscovy-the future Russian empire. Some Jews, nevertheless, established in the area.

Contact

Russian Jewish Congress
PRESIDENT: Yuri KANNER

 

The Jewish Community of Serbia

Demography:

During the past 70 years since World War II, Serbia’s Jewish community has not significantly increased in number, mostly due to emigration to Israel and other countries.

History

The history of the Jews in Serbia dates back to the period of the Roman Empire, some 2,000 years ago, with no evidence on continuity until the 15th century.

Contact

Federation of Jewish Communities in Serbia
PRESIDENT: Dr Ruben Fuks

 

The Jewish Community of Slovakia

Demography:

Today, there are estimated 3,000 Jews in Slovakia. The majority of Slovak Jews live in Bratislava, the capital, but there are also Jewish communities in towns such as Košice, Prešov, Pieš?any, Nové Zámky, Dunajská Stre.

History

Signs of the presence of Jews in Slovakia can be found as early as the middle of the 13th century. When Slovakia was part of Greater Hungary, Slovak Jews were commonly called "Highland Jews".

Contact

Federation of Jewish Communities in Slovakia
Ustredny zvaz Zidovskych nabozenskych obci
PRESIDENT: Igor Rintel

 

The Jewish Community of Slovenia

Demography:

Today, the total Jewish population in Slovenia, comprised of both Sephardi and Ashkenazi members, is estimated at 400.

History

Jewish people lived in what is now Slovenia already in the second and third centuries CE, and there is evidence of an uninterrupted Jewish presence since the 13th century.

Contact

The Jewish Community of Slovenia
Judovska Skupnost Slovenije
Management Board: Boris Cerin, David Sonnenschein, Igor Vojtic

 

The Jewish Community of Spain

Demography:

Approximately 45.000 Jews live in Spain today with the majority located in two major centers: Madrid (some 15,000 persons) and Barcelona (approximately 15,000).

History

The history of Spanish Jewry dates back at least 2,000 years, when the Romans destroyed the Second Temple in Jerusalem and brought Jews back to Europe with them, while some claim the Jews arrived much earlier.

Contact

Federation of Jewish Communities in Spain
PRESIDENT: Isaac Querub

 

The Jewish Community of Sweden

Demography:

Sweden’s main Jewish communities are in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo. There are also small communities in places such as Boras, Helsingborg, Lund, Norrkoping, Uppsala and Vasteras.

History

Royal ordinances issued in 1685 against the Jews are the first indication of their presence in Sweden.

Contact

Council of Swedish Jewish Communities
PRESIDENT: Aron VERSTÄNDIG

 

The Jewish Community of Switzerland

Demography:

At present, approximately 18,000 Jews live in Switzerland. Half of them live in the Zurich metropolitan area.

History

The first Jews probably arrived in the area we now call Switzerland along with the Romans. Over the centuries they lived in Switzerland in small numbers in different towns and villages.

Contact

Swiss Federation of Jewish Communities
PRESIDENT: Dr Herbert Winter

 

The Jewish Community of Netherland

Demography:

Prior to the Holocaust, 140,000 Jews were living in the Netherlands. During the 1930s, the community was active in helping Jews leave Germany.

History

It is likely that the first Jews settled in The Netherlands in small numbers and isolated communities during the Roman conquest some 2,000 years ago.

Contact

Organisation of Jewish Communities in the Netherlands
Nederlands-Israëlitisch Kerkgenootschap - NIK
PRESIDENT: Jonathan SOESMAN

 

The Jewish Community of Tunisia

Demography:

Before 1948, the Jewish population of Tunisia reached a peak of 110,000. During the 1950s, half this number left for Israel and the other half for France.

History

The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back to Roman times and perhaps earlier, although it is difficult to determine the exact origins of the Jewish community in the adjacent island of Djerba.

Contact

CJT Communauté Juive de Tunisie
PRESIDENT: Joseph Roger BISMUTH

 

The Jewish Community of Turkey

Demography:

The present size of Jewish Community is estimated at around 20.000. Almost 18.000 live in Istanbul, about 1.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in different towns.

History

The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. Remnants of Jewish settlements, ancient synagogue ruins and tumbstones, dating from 220 B.C.at least.

Contact

Jewish Community of Turkey
PRESIDENT: Ishak IBRAHIMZADEH

 

The Jewish Community of Ukraine

Demography:

In the 1990s, many Ukrainian Jews emigrated to Israel. In spite of this Aliyah, the Jewish community of Ukraine is today the fifth largest in the world.

History

Jewish settlements in Ukraine can be traced back to the 8th century, when Jewish refugees from the Byzantine Empire, Persia and Mesopotamia, fleeing from persecution by Christians throughout Europe, settled in the Khazar Khaganate.

Contact

Jewish Confederation of Ukraine
PRESIDENT: Boris FUCHSMANN

 

The Jewish Community of United Kingdom

Demography:

Jews in the United Kingdom now number approximately 300,000 and England contains the second largest Jewish population in Europe and the fifth largest Jewish community worldwide.

History

The history of Jews in England dates back to Roman times, but in the modern period to the 11th Century and the reign of William I, the first Norman King of England.

Contact

Board of Deputies of British Jews
PRESIDENT: Jonathan ARKUSH 

 


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