European Jewish Congress
The Jewish Community of Romania
Federatia Comunitatii Evreiesti din Romania
Latest news from the community
Romania to open first state-run Jewish museum
Romania, which denied its role in the Holocaust for years, is to open the first state-run museum dedicated to the country’s Jewish community, once one of the largest in Europe before World War II.
Read more

The Jewish Community of Romania

History

The Jews may have arrived in Romania as merchants or in other capacities with the Roman legions that garrisoned the country from 101 C.E. Another wave of Jewish immigrants settled in Walachia (a Romanian principality founded around 1290) after they had been expelled from Hungary in 1367.

In the 16th century, some refugees from the Spanish expulsion came to Walachia from the Balkan Peninsula. A few served as physicians and even diplomats at the court of the sovereigns of Walachia. Since it was on the trade routes between Poland - Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire, many Jewish merchants travelled through Moldavia, the second Romanian principality (in the northeast), founded in the middle of the 14th century. Some settled there and were favorably received by the rulers of this under-populated region.

From an early date, one of the main components of anti-Jewish sentiment in Romania was commercial competition, and the Jews were intermittently expelled and discriminated against by local princes, rulers and by Catholic and Greek Orthodox bishops. Their situation only improved with the Moslem –Turkish conquest during the 15th century. Romanian struggle for independence succeeded in 1837, but Jews continued to serve as scapegoats in the conflict between the ruling classes and the peasantry. Anti-Semitism prevailed in mainstream liberal and conservative parties alike, as far as into the 1920´s. Only after World War I was legislation enacted to emancipate Romanian Jewry.

Jews played an important role in the transformation of Romania from a feudal system into a modern economy and were also active in the country’s cultural life. Romania was the birthplace of the Yiddish theater. It also produced many of the first chalutzim (pioneers) who settled in the then-future State of Israel.

At the end of World War I, the territory under Romanian control was expanded. It is estimated that there were about 800,000 Jews in the enlarged country before WWII. In the second half of the 1930's, the internal and continental European rise of fascism made the situation of the Jews increasingly ominous. At the beginning of World War II, Romania was forced to withdraw from northern Transylvania, northern Bukovina, Bessarabia, and southern Dobruja. Of the Jews who remained under Romanian jurisdiction, about 265,000 (more than 40%) were murdered, many by the Romanian army and the brutal Fascist Iron Guard. About 400,000 Jews survived the war in Romanian territory.

From 1948 - 1988 about 300,000 Jews left the country. Almost all of them moved to Israel, where they comprise one of the largest ethnic communities. With the advent of Communist rule all Zionist activity was prohibited, but organized Jewish life persisted. Even during this period of completed dependence on Moscow, when all institutions and expressions of Jewish aspiration were repressed, Romanian Jewry was not as alienated from its national and religious identity as were the Jews of the Soviet Union. The officially recognized representative Jewish organization was the Federation of Jewish Communities headed by the late Chief Rabbi Dr. Moses Rosen. Under Rabbi Rosen’s leadership, Romania was a 'positive exception' in Eastern Europe. Religious and cultural life was active, and the great majority of Jewish youth received a Jewish education. After the 1989 revolution, Jewish communal property nationalized by the Communist regime was returned to the Federation of Jewish Communities. Jewish life has expanded substantially.

Demography

According to official community membership, some 12,000 Jews live in Romania today, but the country's census in 2002 showed a total of 6,200 persons wishing to identify as Jewish. Differences are due to varying definitions of Judaism and to the traditional Jewish reluctance to be officially registered as such. The drastic reduction in the size of the Romanian Jewish community was largely a result of mass emigration, especially during the years 1944-47.

At the end of the war, tens of thousands of Jews, terrified by the Holocaust, fled the country through its western border and more than 200,000 settled in the new State of Israel. By the end of the 1960's, the Romanian Jewish community numbered no more than 100,000. The majority of Jews who stayed in Romania today are over the age of 70. Most youngsters under the age of 25 left the country. Six thousand Jews live in the capital city of Bucharest, and small Jewish communities exist in the towns of Moldavia-Iasi (Jassy), Dorahoi, Succeava, Radauti-and in Transylvania (Cluj, Arad, Timisoara, Satu Mare, Tigu Mures, Oradea), as well as in Constanta on the Black Sea coast.

In the decade 1983–1992, the central development in Romanian life, and especially in the life of the ever-dwindling Jewish community, was the overthrow of the Communist regime and the attempts to introduce Western-style democracy to the country. The change of rule did not bring in its wake any real changes in the life of the few Jews left in the country.

Community life

The Federation of Jewish Communities represents Romanian Jewry. The communal framework which existed under Communist rule has been preserved, but the offices of the president and Chief Rabbi of the community have been separated. The community hosts a variety of social welfare and communal service programs. At present, an old-age retirement facility, a Jewish hospital, a clinic and a pharmacy are operated in the capital by the Jewish community, with the support of American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.

Presently, 38 Jewish communities throughout Romania are affiliated with the Jewish Federation. 15 among them have a membership bigger than a few hundred each.

Religious life

Synagogues and a religious infrastructure are maintained in many localities, although the number of operating synagogues in the provinces is declining. There are kosher cafeterias in some 10 cities. Virtually all Jewish children receive at least the rudiments of a Jewish education in the community’s Talmud Torah, Sunday or evening schools. There are four weekly operating Synagogues in Bucharest. With the advent of democracy, a Jewish publishing house, Hasefer, was founded and the Center of Jewish History in Romania, founded in 1976 but lacking legal status, has since obtained legal standing. A department of Jewish studies was founded at Bucharest University as well.

Israel

In contrast to the former East European bloc, Romania and Israel have had uninterrupted diplomatic relations since 1948. The fact that the Romanian government adopted a policy quite different from that of the U.S.S.R. and other East European governments and did not brand Israel as an 'aggressor' has enabled Romania and Israel to maintain solid, friendly relations. Romania was the only East European country which openly expressed support for the Israeli-Egyptian peace initiative. Since 1948, 273,825 Romanian Jews have emigrated to Israel.

Sites

Romania is one of the few countries in Eastern Europe in which remnants of 'shtetl' (Jewish village) life can still be observed, primarily in towns such as Radauti and Dorohoi in Moldavia.

Other sites of Jewish interest include: The Great Synagogue and Holocaust Museum in Bucharest, (1850); the Choral Temple in Bucharest; the Jewish Theater in Bucharest, the first professional Jewish theater in the world (1876); the Piatra Neamt Synagogue, the oldest wooden synagogue in Romania (1766), with a 250 year-old golden altar; and the Brasov Synagogue (1899). There is also an imposing monument in the Jewish cemetery in Iasi, in memory of the 10,000 Jews massacred there in 1941. Additional impressive, historic synagogues are located in other cities and towns in Romania.

Contact

Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania
Federatia Comunitatii Evreiesti din Romania
PRESIDENT : Mr. Aurel Vainer
Vineri 9-11, Sector 3 70478 Bucharest
Tel : 40 21 613 2538
Fax : 40 21 312 0869
Email : aurel@vainer.ro

Subscribe to our Newsletter
Life in Israel
  • Israel nature photo exhibition to open at UN
    The Israel Nature and Parks Authority (INPA), in cooperation with Israel's Ambassador to the UN, Danny Danon, are putting on a photo exhibition at the UN headquarters in New York.

    On Thursday, February 16, 2017 Israel nature photo exhibition to open at UN
  • Israeli device can eliminate need for follow-up breast cancer surgery
    Israel’s Dune Medical Devices has developed an instrument to help women with breast cancer avoid undergoing dreaded follow-up surgery to remove residual cancer cells after a tumour is removed. The device is already being used by surgeons on patients in more than 100 hospitals in the US and in Israeli medical centres.

    On Thursday, February 16, 2017 Israeli device can eliminate need for follow-up breast cancer surgery
  • IDF scouts trained to protect wildlife
    An IDF project is providing training for military scouts in identifying animals and behaviour patterns in the wild as part of their efforts towards environmental preservation.

    On Thursday, February 16, 2017 IDF scouts trained to protect wildlife
  • As the Dead Sea dries, collapsing shores force a return to nature
    Sinkholes — sudden, dangerous pits that form when rock beneath the surface is dissolved by groundwater — first began to appear around the Dead Sea in the late 1980s, caused by the rapid decline of that body of water.

    On Thursday, February 16, 2017 As the Dead Sea dries, collapsing shores force a return to nature
  • First Israeli research nanosatellite set to launch
    A new nanosatellite, the first for Israeli academia, was launched into space on Wednesday to conduct scientific missions for the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

    On Thursday, February 16, 2017 First Israeli research nanosatellite set to launch
  • Ethiopian immigrants aim to bring traditional agriculture to Israel
    Far away from their native rural villages and living in Israel’s cramped urban centres and absorption facilities, many Ethiopian immigrants have abandoned their previous careers in agriculture.

    On Thursday, February 16, 2017 Ethiopian immigrants aim to bring traditional agriculture to Israel
  • In Israel, teaching children cyber skills is a national mission
    In some Israeli schools, fourth-graders learn computer programming while gifted 10th-graders take after-school classes in encryption tactics, coding and how to stop malicious hacking

    On Monday, February 13, 2017 In Israel, teaching children cyber skills is a national mission
EJC in Media
President's Page Security and Crisis Centre by EJC European Parliament Working Group On Antisemitism